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2019年河南专升本英语非谓语动词用法汇总

  小编给大家整理了2019年河南专升本英语非谓语动词用法汇总,如果考生准备参加2019年专升本考试,对于专升本非谓语动词的用法还没有掌握熟练的话,那么大家可以看一下小编给大家分享的英语非谓语动词的用法,希望对考生有帮助。

  非谓语动词是指由动词变化而成,仍具有动词的性质与意义,但不能作为动词使用的词。通常有三种形式构成:

  1. 由“to+动词原形”而成的不定式;

  2. 由“动词原形+ing”而成的现在分词或动名词;

  3. 由“动词原形+ed”而成的(包括动词的不规则变化)过去分词。

  非谓语基本形式及在句中的成分一览表(以 do为例) 不定式现在分词动名词过去分词一般式肯定主动to dodoingdoing/被动to be donebeing donebeing donedone否定主动not to donot doingnot doing/被动not to be donenot being donenot being done/进行式肯定主动to be doing///被动/否定主动not to be doing被动/完成式肯定主动to have donehaving donehaving done/被动to have been donehaving been donehaving been done否定主动not to have donenot having donenot having done被动not to have been donenot having been donenot having been done完成进行时肯定主动to have been doing 被动/否定主动not to have been doing 被动/在句中成分主语、宾语、定语、表语、状语、补语、等除谓语之外所有成分定语、表语、状语、补语定语、表语、宾语、主语定语、表语、状语、补语注意:1.过去分词就是表示完成、被动的意义,不及物动词的过去分词只表示完成。不及物动词的不定式,现在分词和动名词没有被动式。

  2.非谓语的否定式都是由“not+非谓语”构成。一、动词不定式的主要用法

  1.To finish the work on time is not easy.(作主语)

  (要准时完成这项任务并不容易。)

  注意:动词不定式作主语时,也可以用形式主语“it”,

  即It’s not easy to finish the work on time.

  His wish was to become a teacher.(作表语)

  (他的愿望是成为一名教师。)

  There is nothing to worry about.(作定语)

  (没有什么可以担心的。)

  He ran to catch the bus. (作状语)

  (他跑着去赶车。)

  I want to see the new film.(作宾语)

  (我想要去看这部新电影。)

  He asked me to open the door.(作宾语补足语)

  (他要我把门打开。)

  注意:①动词不定式在作let,make,see,hear,feel,watch等使役、感观动词的宾语补足语时,不定式不带“to”

  例:We often hear her sing in the next room.(我们经常听到她在隔壁房间唱歌。)

  但上述动词用于被动语态的句子中,动词不定式变成主语补足语,这时必须带“to”。

  例:He was heard to sing in the next room every morning.(明天早晨他总是被听到在隔壁房间唱歌。)

  ②动词不定式作宾语时,也可用形式宾语“it”。

  例:They found it impossible to get everything ready in time.(他们发现及时准备好一切是不可能的。)

  2.动词不定式也可以和疑问词who,what,which,whether,when,how,where等连用,构成不定式短语。

  How to get the tickets is a question. (作主语)

  (如何获得票子是个问题。)

  I wonder which to choose. (作宾语)

  (我不知选哪一个。)

  The question is who to send the letter. (作表语)

  (问题是谁去送信。)

  1. for + 名词(代词)+动词不定式的复合结构

  It is important for us to learn English. (作主语)

  (对我们来说学英语是重要的。)

  It is for you to decide. (作表语)

  例:While talking with her teacher, she felt nervous.(当与老师讲话时,她感到紧张。);

  On hearing the good news, she jumped up with joy.(她一听到这好消息就高兴地跳起来。)

  4.当分词作状语时,分词的逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。

  Seeing the house on fire, he immediately ran to the phone-box.

  =When he saw the house on fire, he immediately ran to the phone-box.

  (当他看到房子着火,他马上跑到电话亭去。)

  Given more time, we could do it better.

  =If we were given more time, we could do it better.

  (如果我们被给更多的时间,会做得更好。)

  5.有一类动词如interest,excite,surprise,please,disappoint,satisfy,tire等,它们的现在分词往往用来表示事物的性质;而它们的过去分词则用来表示人的感受。

  I am very interested in the interesting story.

  (我对这则有趣的故事很感兴趣。)

  We are all tired of such a tiring question.

  (我们都对如此一个乏味的问题感到厌倦。)

  6.现在分词的被动式being done与过去分词的区别。

  现在分词的被动式being done表示正在进行的被动动作,而过去分词则强调已经完成的动作或持续的被动状态。

  The problem being discussed now is very important.

  (正在讨论的问题很重要。)

  The problem discussed yesterday was very important.

  (昨天讨论过的问题很重要。)

  I saw many cars being repaired.

  (我看到许多车正在被修理。)

  I found the window broken.

  (我发现窗被打碎了。)

  Being cooked, the chicken gave out a wonderful smell.

  (在被煮的时候,鸡散发出极好的味道。)

  Led by the party, we have won great achievements.

  (在党的领导下,我们取得了巨大的成果。)(由你来决定。)

  I don’t think it good for you to leave now.(作宾语)

  (我认为你现在离开并不好。)

  I have bought the books for you to read.(作定语)

  (我已注意:only+分词与only+不定式的区别

  “only+现在分词”的意思是结果只是;

  “only+不定式”意思是想不到、反而并没有料到的结果:

  He lifted a rock only to drop on his own foot.

  (他搬起石头,想不到砸了自己的脚。)

  He died, only leaving debts.

  (他死了,只留下一身债。)

  ③不定式与分词作宾补时的区别:

  不定式作宾补表示动作已经完成,强调动作发生过的这一事实,强调由此行动而产生的结果;而现在分词作宾补强调动作的过程即动作正在进行。

  I found him coming into the building.

  =I saw that he was coming into the building.

  (我看到他正在走进大楼。)

  I found him come into the building.

  =He came into the building, and I saw that.

  (我看到他走进大楼。)

  注意:如在句子中出现often、seldom、usually等频度副词,表示动作的经常性,而不是动作正在进行,所以通常用动词不定式。

  3.不定式与动名词的区别:

  ①从含义上不定式表示具体某一次的动作,而动名词表示比较抽象的一般行为、习惯。

  Saving money is important.

  (存钱是重要的。)

  To save money now is impossible.

  (现在存钱是不可能的。)

  My favourate sport is skating.

  (我最喜欢的运动是滑冰。)

  The first thing for us to do is to improve our pronunciation.

  (第一件我们要做的事是改进发音。)

  I love swimming, but I don’t love to swim in this dirty river.

  (我喜欢游泳,但我不喜欢在这条脏河里游泳。)

  注意:当表语是动名词时,主语也要用动名词;当表语是不定式时,主语也要用不定式。

  例如:To live is to struggle.

  Seeing is believing.

  ②关于不定式与动名词在用法上的几点规定

  只能用不定式的单词或词组(句型)

  ⑴It is important, It is necessary, It is fitting, It is advisable……等“It is+adj.+(for sb./of sb.)+不定式”的句型中

  ⑵在动词decide, wish, hope, promise, manage, arrange, choose, plan, desire, learn, want, ask, intend, attempt等后用不定式作宾语经把你要读的书买来了。)They handed in the exercises just in time for the teacher to correct.(作状语)(他们及时交了作业以便教师批改。)

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